This is pretty cool. A couple of years ago, a cosmetics study day titled Making Up the Renaissance was held in Edinburgh. Among other events, they ran a workshop which put to the test various cosmetic recipes for the skin, hair and teeth from Caterina Sforza’s Gli Experimenti. Jackie Spicer writes,
Many of Caterina Sforza’s recipes are vague about ingredient quantities and preparation methods, so sometimes the only way to figure out the desired effect was to try it out and see what worked. …
It turns out that many of the recipes may have been more effective than appearances imply—the greenish water from nettle to ‘make your skin white’ wouldn’t have been a dye or cover-up, but would have worked to return skin to a normal shade if it had been reddened due to hives or other allergic rashes. Likewise, the sensory experience was not disappointing, and often revealed why various recipes would have been thought to be effective. Our participants experienced tightening sensation in their gums with the tragacanth gum-putty, the numbing mouthwash-like effect of the cure for bad breath, and tingling cheeks brought on by the reduced acqua vita mixture (we used brandy!) for a well-coloured complexion.
It’s often unclear from just reading what these ideas of beauty would have actually looked like to the everyday person, and what they might have tried to emulate. Paintings might show an idealized form, but what did people look for and see in each other? For example, writers used terms like ‘fair’ and ‘glistening’ to describe a certain beautiful sheen that doesn’t translate easily to our modern beauty standards. At the time, being fair was different than just being pale; it resembled ivory and marble, but not snow, and might also include a ‘well coloured’ complexion. By trying out the recipes, we were able to observe with our own eyes what this might have looked like, in the slight gleam of and egg white finishing wash or the glistening oily effect of white lead face cream.
This in turn helps inform our understanding of artwork, and how images might be read, because we can begin to see how much artistic idealization resembles actual effects and vice versa. We were surprised and delighted to see that the very white face cream and rather orange rouge water, when made-up on our models gave them a colouration that almost exactly matched the Bordone painting.
There’s more information about the workshop, and Caterina’s recipes, on their website. It’s quite an interesting read.
or any shapeshifter-type person, really, but this is something I see a LOT when people write about werewolf transformations.
FACT: a wolf’s knees are not on “backwards”
let’s look at a wolf’s rear legs, photo courtesy of Jon Atkinson:
woah they are mad different from human legs, i’ll give you that. instinctively, we want to call the “knee” that joint halfway down the leg with a sharp, noticeable bend, like so:
but that’s not actually right. let’s look at a wolf skeleton (source):
a wolf’s leg is exactly like your average human leg - the key difference is that they walk on their toes, not the flat of their foot. visual aid:
so when we go back to our original wolf friend, we can see that his knees aren’t backwards - we were looking at his majestic ankles all along!
so please, dear writers: do not mangle your poor werewolf’s legs during their transformation scene. The knees do not reverse direction - the foot just grows longer to compensate for four-legged jaunts through the trees (the better to eat vampires or grandmothers or what-have-you)!
this has been a(n incredibly niche) PSA.
A lot of people use semi-colons wrong because they know there’s supposed to be a pause in their sentence that they know isn’t quite a comma, so they think it must be that mysterious semi-colon. Usually, it’s actually supposed to be an em dash (—), which in some ways is more mysterious!
The em dash is the longest of the three dashes and most often used for interruptions. Interruptions in speech, in action, in thought. It’s also a great syntax addition for fight scenes, since it makes the narrative seem quick and unexpected and jolting from side to side like a fight scene should be. Read your em dash sentences out loud until you get a feel for how its pause compares to the pause of a comma. It’s a heartbeat longer. If a comma is one beat of pause, then I see an em dash as two beats of pause.
In this first example, the em dash is used to give an aside to the reader. It’s like a btw sort of moment, which can sometimes be replaced with commas or parenthesis. I think the em dashes are most suitable when your aside is decently long.
Her neighbor, Frank, is always blasting music.
Her neighbor—the one who always blasts the music—is named Frank.
My mischievous neighbor, Vince, seemed to have a knack for graveyard cavorting.
Vince—more often called (in a raised and angry voice) Vincent Price Ramsey—seemed to have a knack for graveyard cavorting.
Next up, here’s the em dash as a replacement for the semi-colon. Kinda like a slang or shortened sentence. Semi-colons have to connect two independent clauses—meaning each side of the semi-colon could stand alone as its own complete sentence. If you don’t want to do that, try an em dash:
I thought hanging out would be great—a chance to finally see the city, just like Aunt Lillian wanted.
I thought hanging out would be great; it would be a chance to finally see the city, just like Aunt Lillian wanted.
There was a headstone hardly a foot from where I’d emerged—dark grey stone a few inches thick and maybe as high as my knee.
There was a headstone hardly a foot from where I’d emerged; it was made of dark grey stone a few inches thick and maybe as high as my knee.
Sometimes, you can use an em dash to have a speaker correct themselves, or interrupt themselves to amend their sentence.
I could see the blur of the graveyard behind him—through him—
Similar to the last example, it can be used to interrupt a sentence in order to add additional information about the sentence. Often you can use a comma in this situation, too, so try to think of syntax and how that additional beat of pause changes things. In this case, Alice has just seen a ghost for the first time, so her mind is a bit too shocked for the normal pause of a comma. Read both. Doesn’t the one with the em dash sound more shocked or surprised, while the comma makes it sound like a simple observation?
He was glowing pale—almost tinged in cold blue.
He was glowing pale, almost tinged in cold blue.
Of course, it could be an interruption. It could be someone interrupting another in speech, one action interrupting another, or a character’s thoughts interrupting themselves. Here I’ll include the sentence with the em dash and the sentence following, so you can see the thing interrupted and the interruption.
You can have an action interrupt a character’s thoughts. For the first one, Alice is in a creepy situation and completely focused on something else, so when something touches her elbow, she’s shocked out of her thoughts. For the second one, Tristan is listening for an enemy when the enemy makes a move and startles him into action.
As far as I could tell it was some kind of berry—
An icy contact on my elbow broke my resolve, and I screamed until an equally cold hand clamped over my mouth.
The night was still, and yet—
Something whistled through the air. Tristan jerked backwards, narrowly avoiding an incoming dagger.
Here we have one character interrupting another in dialogue. Pretty self-explanatory.
“I’m not going to—”
Mom’s voice in the receiver cut me off. “At least consider it.”
“After all, you’re only a—”
“If you even say girl,” I interrupted, “I’ll stab you, I swear.”
The next one is part of a fight scene, so Alice’s thoughts are interrupting themselves as soon as she thinks them. She throws up an idea, “iron,” but interrupts herself from further exploring that idea, and instead casts it out. In a fight, you don’t have time to think out long, eloquent ideas. Your thoughts should come in fragments. Stab. Punch. Dodge. Swing. Would this work? No. How about this? Maybe. The em dash can help get across this uneven jolting of thoughts.
Iron—no use. I’d dropped the knife when her damn vines ensnared me, and the nails were in my pockets and out of reach. Blood—there were possibilities there.
Continuing in fight scenes, em dashes can have action interrupt action. Don’t just throw them in willy nilly, but if you have a chance for an em dash, jump on it. Instead of a word like “suddenly,” it makes it feel suddenly. Ups the tension. Em dashes are about interruption, and what is a fight scene but two people interrupting each other’s attempts to kill the other? This is especially useful for the last line in a paragraph during a fighting scene, because it’s a nice place to have one action interrupt another.
I snatched it—slit across my hand—
And stabbed her through the heart.
His swords whistled through the air—
A clean “X” appeared on the imp’s back, severing its body into four neat chunks.
So yeah, I’m basically obsessed with em dashes and I use more of them than the majority of writers. (At 72k words, my current project has 22 semi-colons and 344 em dashes. So. Yeah. Not to mention the length of this post…) Em dashes are way cool and can add a lot to your writing even though they’re just another form of punctuation. Syntax helps your reader into the mindset you’re going for, and em dashes can be a great, powerful part of that syntax!
I strongly identify with wood elves because I too like to drink wine and talk about how men are failing
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Giraffe-taur drops a quarter: the crappy comic.
I am going to hurt you.
You are going to hurt me.
But we will do it with practiced fingers
and passionate mouths
and I swear to god
it will be worth something.